Dance of the Planets

Discussions related to graphics (2D and 3D), animation and games programming
DDRM
Posts: 398
Joined: Mon 02 Apr 2018, 18:04

Dance of the Planets

Post by DDRM »

A few days ago someone sent me a link to an animation showing Mars and Jupiter orbiting the sun, with lines joining them at each time point. It generated a quite beautiful "spirograph-like" like image - not quite epicycles, but obviously related to them.

Anyway, I thought it would be fun to reproduce, and extend to the other planets. It turns out that different numbers of orbits are "sensible" in terms of the plots, so I've added that too.

Prompted somewhat by a discussion in another thread, I thought I'd make it more like a "proper windows program", so I've added menus to facilitate the choice of planets etc, to show how easy it is. Unfortunately, that ties it to BB4W. but if you want to run it in BBC-SDL it's easy to adapt: simply delete the calls to PROCSetUpMenus and the ON SYS command (and their associated routines, if you want), delete the loop, and just put in a call to PROCDrawIt. If I'm feeling keen I'll also post a version with those amendments.

Menus are arguably an odd choice in this case: a dialogue box would probably be better, but a bit more complicated. Again, if I feel keen I'll post a version like that.

Can I interest anyone in making a nice BBC-SDL version with a dialogue box? All the libraries are there...

Best wishes,

D

Code: Select all

      REM Planets, A graphical ditty based on relative planetary motions
      REM Pick two planets to orbit the sun, and see the pattern drawn by the line between them

      DIM year(9),distance(9)     :REM Will hold the "year" and distance from the sun for each planet
      year()=0,0.241,0.615,1,1.881,11.86,29.46,84.01,164.8,248.1
      distance()=0,57.9,108.2,149.6,227.9,778.3,1429.4,2871,4504
      MODE 23
      ORIGIN 1024,768
      COLOUR 8,80,80,80

      PRINT TAB(5,10);"Select your planets, and the number of orbits,"
      PRINT TAB(5,11);"and then choose 'Make It So!' from the first menu!"

      REM Set up default planets and number of years (of planet 2)
      p1 = 4
      p2 = 5
      numyears = 3

      REM Set up The menu structure
      PROCSetUpMenus

      REM "ON SYS" will pick up menu selections, and pass them to a handling routine
      REM Note that these are interrupts: they will override whatever else is happening at the time!
      ON SYS PROCDoSys(@wparam%):RETURN

      done%=FALSE
      drawing% = FALSE
      redraw_request% = FALSE

      REM Now we are going to sit in a "game loop", doing nothing, unless a menu selection causes some action
      REM A slight complication is dealing with menu requests to draw when we are already drawing
      REM If this happens, the interrupt will occur inside PROCDrawIt.
      REM In this case PROCDoSys sets redraw_request%, and the present iteration ends gracefully,
      REM and we pick up the request inside the loop (normally PROCDrawIt is called from PROCDoSys).
      REPEAT
        IF redraw_request% THEN
          redraw_request% = FALSE
          PROCDrawIt(p1,p2,numyears)
          WAIT 1
        ENDIF
      UNTIL done%
      END
      :
      DEFPROCDrawIt(pl1,pl2,ny)
      LOCAL p1x,p2x,p1y,p2y,t,maxt,dt,sf
      IF pl1 = pl2 THEN PRINT"That's not going to be fun! Choose two different planets": ENDPROC
      drawing% = TRUE
      IF pl1 > pl2 THEN SWAP pl1,pl2  : REM always want the more distant planet as pl2
      REM Set initial positions - aligned to the right of the sun
      p1x = distance(pl1)
      p1y = 0
      p2x = distance(pl2)
      p2y = 0

      t = 0
      maxt = ny * year(pl2)    :REM Set the maximum time to the number of years x the length of the year
      dt = maxt / (360 * ny)   :REM Set the time interval between draws: basically, at 1 degree intervals
      sf = 700/distance(pl2)   :REM Scale factor for plotting: make the outer orbit fit within the window
      CLS
      REM Draw initial positions of sun and the two planets
      GCOL 3
      CIRCLE FILL 0,0,20             :REM Yellow sun
      GCOL 3,1
      CIRCLE FILL p1x*sf,p1y*sf,5    :REM Red inner planet
      GCOL 3,12
      CIRCLE FILL p2x*sf,p2y*sf,10   :REM Blue outer planet
      REPEAT
        REM OK, now we are going to plot the positions at each time point
        REM First we UNplot the planets (note the use of XOR plotting) in their old positions
        GCOL 3,1
        CIRCLE FILL p1x*sf,p1y*sf,5
        GCOL 3,12
        CIRCLE FILL p2x*sf,p2y*sf,10
        REM Calculate the new positions
        p1x = distance(pl1) * COS(2*PI*t/year(pl1))
        p1y = distance(pl1) * SIN(2*PI*t/year(pl1))
        p2x = distance(pl2) * COS(2*PI*t/year(pl2))
        p2y = distance(pl2) * SIN(2*PI*t/year(pl2))
        REM draw a grey line between the planets.
        GCOL 0,8
        LINE p1x*sf,p1y*sf,p2x*sf,p2y*sf
        t += dt
        REM Now we redraw the sun and planets in their new positions
        GCOL 0,3
        CIRCLE FILL 0,0,20
        GCOL 3,1
        CIRCLE FILL p1x*sf,p1y*sf,5
        GCOL 3,12
        CIRCLE FILL p2x*sf,p2y*sf,10
        WAIT 5  :REM Slow things down. Arguably naughty when interrupts are in use, but it's a short wait!  ;-)
      UNTIL t>maxt OR redraw_request%  :REM If a redraw request has been made, terminate this one, so a new one can start
      drawing% = FALSE
      ENDPROC
      :
      DEFPROCDoSys(w%)
      REM Here we handle menu choices: w% is the value passed back from the menu
      REM(Defined in the statements where we set up the menu entries, below)
      CASE w% OF
        WHEN 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9:
          REM Set first planet: untick the present one, set value, and tick it
          SYS "CheckMenuItem", hpop1%, p1, 0
          p1 = w%
          SYS "CheckMenuItem", hpop1%, w%, 8
        WHEN 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19:
          REM Set second planet: untick the present one, set value, and tick it
          SYS "CheckMenuItem", hpop2%, 10 + p2, 0
          p2 = w% - 10
          SYS "CheckMenuItem", hpop2%, w%, 8
        WHEN 21,22,23,24,25:
          REM Set number of orbits of planet 2: untick the present one, set value, and tick it
          SYS "CheckMenuItem", hpop3%, 20 + numyears, 0
          numyears = w% -20
          SYS "CheckMenuItem", hpop3%, w%, 8
        WHEN 31:
          REM Let's go! Assuming we aren't already drawing. If we are, request restart
          REM This gives us a way of terminating the previous procedure call cleanly
          IF NOT drawing%  THEN PROCDrawIt(p1,p2,numyears) ELSE redraw_request% = TRUE
        WHEN 32: QUIT
      ENDCASE
      ENDPROC
      :
      DEFPROCSetUpMenus
      REM Set up submenus first... Pretty much stolen from the manual, and extended!
      SYS "CreatePopupMenu" TO hpop0%
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop0%, 0, 31, "Make It So!"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop0%, 0, 32, "Quit"
      :
      SYS "CreatePopupMenu" TO hpop1%
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop1%, 0, 1, "Mercury"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop1%, 0, 2, "Venus"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop1%, 0, 3, "Earth"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop1%, 0, 4, "Mars"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop1%, 0, 5, "Jupiter"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop1%, 0, 6, "Saturn"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop1%, 0, 7, "Uranus"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop1%, 0, 8, "Neptune"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop1%, 0, 9, "Pluto"
      :
      SYS "CreatePopupMenu" TO hpop2%
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop2%, 0, 11, "Mercury"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop2%, 0, 12, "Venus"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop2%, 0, 13, "Earth"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop2%, 0, 14, "Mars"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop2%, 0, 15, "Jupiter"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop2%, 0, 16, "Saturn"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop2%, 0, 17, "Uranus"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop2%, 0, 18, "Neptune"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop2%, 0, 19, "Pluto"
      :
      SYS "CreatePopupMenu" TO hpop3%
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop3%, 0, 21, "1"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop3%, 0, 22, "2"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop3%, 0, 23, "3"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop3%, 0, 24, "4"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hpop3%, 0, 25, "5"
      :
      REM Now we make the main menu bar and add the submenus
      SYS "CreateMenu" TO hmenu%
      SYS "AppendMenu", hmenu%, 16, hpop0%, "&Go and Stop"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hmenu%, 16, hpop1%, "&First Planet"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hmenu%, 16, hpop2%, "&Second Planet"
      SYS "AppendMenu", hmenu%, 16, hpop3%, "&Orbits"
      SYS "SetMenu", @hwnd%, hmenu%
      SYS "DrawMenuBar", @hwnd%
      :
      REM Set ticks next to the default menu options
      SYS "CheckMenuItem", hpop1%, p1, 8
      SYS "CheckMenuItem", hpop2%, 10 + p2, 8
      SYS "CheckMenuItem", hpop3%, 20 + numyears, 8
      ENDPROC


DDRM
Posts: 398
Joined: Mon 02 Apr 2018, 18:04

Re: Dance of the Planets

Post by DDRM »

Here's a simplified version that runs fine in either BB4W or BBC-SDL:

Code: Select all

      REM Planets, A graphical ditty based on relative planetary motions
      REM Pick two planets to orbit the sun, and see the pattern drawn by the line between them

      DIM year(9),distance(9)     :REM Will hold the "year" and distance from the sun for each planet
      year()=0,0.241,0.615,1,1.881,11.86,29.46,84.01,164.8,248.1
      distance()=0,57.9,108.2,149.6,227.9,778.3,1429.4,2871,4504
      MODE 23
      ORIGIN 1024,768
      COLOUR 8,80,80,80

      PRINT"Select your planets (1 - 9), and the number of orbits:"
      PRINT
      INPUT "Number of planet 1 (1 - 8): ",p1
      INPUT "Number of planet 2 (Planet 1 +1 - 9): ",p2
      INPUT "How many orbits of the outer planet? Suggest 1 - 5: ",numyears

      PROCDrawIt(p1,p2,numyears)

      END
      :
      DEFPROCDrawIt(pl1,pl2,ny)
      LOCAL p1x,p2x,p1y,p2y,t,maxt,dt,sf
      IF pl1 = pl2 THEN PRINT"That's not going to be fun! Choose two different planets": ENDPROC
      IF pl1 > pl2 THEN SWAP pl1,pl2  : REM always want the more distant planet as pl2
      REM Set initial positions - aligned to the right of the sun
      p1x = distance(pl1)
      p1y = 0
      p2x = distance(pl2)
      p2y = 0

      t = 0
      maxt = ny * year(pl2)    :REM Set the maximum time to the number of years x the length of the year
      dt = maxt / (360 * ny)   :REM Set the time interval between draws: basically, at 1 degree intervals
      sf = 700/distance(pl2)   :REM Scale factor for plotting: make the outer orbit fit within the window
      CLS
      REM Draw initial positions of sun and the two planets
      GCOL 3
      CIRCLE FILL 0,0,20             :REM Yellow sun
      GCOL 3,1
      CIRCLE FILL p1x*sf,p1y*sf,5    :REM Red inner planet
      GCOL 3,12
      CIRCLE FILL p2x*sf,p2y*sf,10   :REM Blue outer planet
      REPEAT
        REM OK, now we are going to plot the positions at each time point
        REM First we UNplot the planets (note the use of XOR plotting) in their old positions
        GCOL 3,1
        CIRCLE FILL p1x*sf,p1y*sf,5
        GCOL 3,12
        CIRCLE FILL p2x*sf,p2y*sf,10
        REM Calculate the new positions
        p1x = distance(pl1) * COS(2*PI*t/year(pl1))
        p1y = distance(pl1) * SIN(2*PI*t/year(pl1))
        p2x = distance(pl2) * COS(2*PI*t/year(pl2))
        p2y = distance(pl2) * SIN(2*PI*t/year(pl2))
        REM draw a grey line between the planets.
        GCOL 0,8
        LINE p1x*sf,p1y*sf,p2x*sf,p2y*sf
        t += dt
        REM Now we redraw the sun and planets in their new positions
        GCOL 0,3
        CIRCLE FILL 0,0,20
        GCOL 3,1
        CIRCLE FILL p1x*sf,p1y*sf,5
        GCOL 3,12
        CIRCLE FILL p2x*sf,p2y*sf,10
        WAIT 5  :REM Slow things down.
      UNTIL t>maxt
      ENDPROC

Ric
Posts: 99
Joined: Tue 17 Apr 2018, 21:03

Re: Dance of the Planets

Post by Ric »

Morning DDRM,

The spiragraph type images remind me of somewhere in the 80's. I like the symmetric ones like jupiter/neptune but ones with a similar size orbit like venus/earth also produce some nice patterns.

Cant get pluto to work though, it produces a division by zero.

Kind Regards Ric

KenDown
Posts: 261
Joined: Wed 04 Apr 2018, 06:36

Re: Dance of the Planets

Post by KenDown »

Very clever and attractive, but the orbits are circular when they should be ellipses!

Hated Moron
Posts: 136
Joined: Thu 07 Apr 2022, 10:10

Re: Dance of the Planets

Post by Hated Moron »

DDRM wrote:
Sun 13 Feb 2022, 09:37
Here's a simplified version that runs fine in either BB4W or BBC-SDL:
You say it "runs fine" in BBCSDL, but it doesn't run at all here - for the simple reason that it tries to create a window with dimensions 1024 x 768 pixels which is bigger than my screen (well, it's actually the same size as the screen, after high-DPI scaling, but bigger than the available area when the taskbar is taken into account).

I have no reason to revise my longstanding recommendation that a program intended to run on (almost) 'any' platform should use a window no larger than 800 x 600 pixels (e.g. MODE 20). Of course it's perfectly legitimate to maximize the window, so you can take full advantage of the real-estate available. but then you've got to scale everything accordingly.

If you're happy for it to run only in BBCSDL there's a much simpler solution - take advantage of the built-in scaling to adapt to whatever the window size is, then the user can maximize or adjust the window size themselves and everything magically 'just works'. Several of the example programs supplied with BBCSDL do that.
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Hated Moron
Posts: 136
Joined: Thu 07 Apr 2022, 10:10

Re: Dance of the Planets

Post by Hated Moron »

Hated Moron wrote:
Mon 09 May 2022, 14:37
If you're happy for it to run only in BBCSDL there's a much simpler solution...
... or do what I do in bugs.bbc: use a fixed window size when running in BB4W and a resizable window - with automatic scaling - when running in BBCSDL. Arguably that's the best of both worlds:

Code: Select all

      IF INKEY$(-256) = "W" THEN
        SYS "GetWindowLong", @hwnd%, -16 TO ws%
        SYS "SetWindowLong", @hwnd%, -16, ws% AND NOT &50000
        MODE 20
      ELSE
        MODE 20
        WinW% = 800 : WinH% = 600
        ON MOVE PROCResize(@msg%, @lparam%) : RETURN
      ENDIF
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DDRM
Posts: 398
Joined: Mon 02 Apr 2018, 18:04

Re: Dance of the Planets

Post by DDRM »

Thanks, Richard, some useful suggestions. I confess I tend to assume everyone is using something approaching a full-HD screen these days, especially for graphical ditties, but of course that isn't always the case.

Hated Moron
Posts: 136
Joined: Thu 07 Apr 2022, 10:10

Re: Dance of the Planets

Post by Hated Moron »

DDRM wrote:
Tue 10 May 2022, 16:14
I confess I tend to assume everyone is using something approaching a full-HD screen these days, especially for graphical ditties
This laptop (a Dell XPS-13, one of their most popular models) has a native screen resolution of 2560 x 1440 pixels. That's even higher than 'full-HD' (1920 x 1080) but it still won't run your program, because it's physically quite small (13" diagonal). After high-DPI scaling it is equivalent to a logical resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels, which isn't enough.

So when high-DPI scaling (which is standard on all platforms these days) is taken into account, what you are effectively saying is that you assume everybody is using a screen size approaching 22" (58 cm) diagonal. Really? That will be true of some widescreen desktop monitors, but definitely not of most laptops.
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